SPANISH REPUBLIC
 


 
NAVAL ENSIGNS, FLAGS & PENNANTS    1931-39
 

Notes
 

The 1931 abdication of King Alfonso XIII and the proclamation of a republic led to a revision of Spanish flags. The red-yellow-red flag with royal arms, in use since 1785, was abolished. In its place the Spanish Republic adopted a horizontal red-yellow-purple tricolor flag. Purple was chosen for the lower stripe because of its traditional association with the republican cause.

The plain red-yellow-purple tricolor served as the civil flag and merchant ensign. Government entities, including the armed forces, flew a variant of this flag with the national coat of arms on the yellow stripe: a shield quartering the ancient arms of the provinces of Castile, Leon, Aragon and Navarre, plus Granada in the point. Flanking the shield were two pillars representing the Pillars of Hercules, with an interlaced ribbon bearing the Latin motto Plus Ultra ("More Beyond"). The crest of the arms was a mural crown, an heraldic device associated with republicanism. When made in 2:3 proportions, this flag served as the naval ensign and jack.

The government order that established the new national flag also revised the design of the Spanish Navy's appointment/rank flags and command pennants. Generally the 1914 system of rank flags was retained, but with purple replacing red for the lower stripe.

The outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 led to a revival of the red-yellow-red flag in areas controlled by Franco's Nationalist forces. Naval vessels under Nationalist command hoisted the 1785 ensign or a plain red-yellow-red ensign, and used the 1914-pattern rank flags and command pennants. All Republican flags were abolished in 1939, when the Civil War ended with the victory of the Nationalists.

Flag Proportions: The naval ensign was made in 2:3 proportions. Appointment/rank flags (except command pennants) were made square.
 



 

NAVAL ENSIGN & JACK

 

COMMISSIONING PENNANT

 

APPOINTMENT & RANK FLAGS & COMMAND PENNANTS

 

MINISTER OF MARINE

 

CAPTAIN-GENERAL OF THE NAVY

 

ADMIRAL IN COMMAND

 

VICE-ADMIRAL IN COMMAND

 

VICE-ADMIRAL SUBORDINATE

 

REAR-ADMIRAL IN COMMAND

 

REAR-ADMIRAL SUBORDINATE

 

CAPTAIN COMMANDING A SQUADRON

 

COMMANDER OF A DIVISION

 

FLOTILLA COMMANDER OR SENIOR OFFICER
 



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